Raza Espanola Canary
DISCLAIMER: Since there is very little written about the Raza Espanola in English I took the liberty of translating the following information from various Spanish, Italian and German web sites. As I am just a hobbyist who, for whatever reason, have fallen in love with the Raza Espanola I make no claim of being an expert or of the accuracy of the following information.
Raza Espanola Description
The Raza Espanola is a type canary, meaning that it is bred for body shape and conformation. One of the smallest type canaries its length is 4-1/2" (11 .5 CM) when measured from the tip of the tail to the tip of the beak. While there are other type canaries, the Gloster and the Fife for instance, of the same length, the Raza Espanola possesses a narrower body and smaller head giving it the title of the smallest type canary. It may be any color other than red.
Raza Espanola History
To fully understand the history of the Raza Espanola one must understand the history of the domestic canary itself. As the Spanish took over the canary islands in the 1470's there is some evidence that the wild canaries of the land were used as captive cage birds long before they were exported to Spain and eventually from there to the rest of Europe. The first exported birds may have started as sailor's curiosities which were brought back to the Spanish mainland as individual singing males, but they soon caught the eye of Spanish aristocrats and wealthy merchants who were anxious to acquire the birds and willing to pay more money than the sailors could earn in any other way. Eventually a brisk trade grew, and canaries were included among the exotic luxuries which were being imported on Spanish treasure ships from a growing Spanish empire. According to the romantic stories about canaries which are reprinted in many canary books, Spanish convents and monasteries were the first to crack the problem of breeding the canary in captivity and that the breakthrough was due to the dedication of the members of the religious houses of Spain who already made good incomes for their houses by raising sheep and other livestock. Those who speak of this story usually emphasize the imagery of the friars' and monks' chants being beautifully blended with the songs of their birds in a sort of concert which is both natural and divine. According to the story, the secret of breeding canaries was kept within the walls of these houses at first and then within the borders of Spain. Whether this is true or not, there is some evidence that the Spaniards did try to keep canary hens from being exported by royal edict and saw the birds as a crown monopoly and source of revenue for the government.
For the next 400 years the domestic canary found its way into most of Europe and through various breeding techniques its shape and song was changed many times. During the early 1900's the craze for greater canary size swept the canary world and even Spanish breeders were swept into it.
Early in the 20th century Spanish breeders sought to develop a miniature canary of true Spanish origin or "Raza Espanola" which in English means Spanish Race. They sought to achieve this goal by cross breeding the popular Spanish canaries of the day, who are unfortunately extinct now, to wild caught canaries. By 1931 la union de canaricultores de Barcelona (now the oldest Spanish ornithological societies) was formed to consolidate those efforts and was making great strides until the Spanish Civil War and its aftermath took a significant toll on all canary breeding and the Raza was almost lost.
By 1941 when the Raza Espanola was recognized as an official breed in Spain it had existed for nearly a half a century, it was in 1956 and in 1961 when the Raza gained international recognition.
The Raza Espanola Conformation and Scoring
SIZE. 25 Points.
The small size is one of the fundamental characteristics of this breed. Must be between 11 and 12.5 cm. The smaller the better canary.
Obviously the main flaw of this section is too large in size, larger than 12.5 cm. All canary that exceeds this measure should not be taken into consideration as a breeder unless you have exceptional qualities in the other sections, and use it only to improve those sections in which it is very good.
It is quite difficult to obtain a flock of very small canaries. Breeders who have succeeded have used several systematic ways including the following:
- Crossing intense x intense, or semiintense x semiintense until areas without feathers around the beak eyes begin to appear and as the thighs become very visible and very long legs.
- Using brunos or Isabelas breeders and crossing each other. The crossing repeated these specimens together results in a decrease in size and a refinement of the Canary body. If x Bruno Bruno crossed and are also strong intense x decreased size is faster and more pronounced.
- selecting between breeding canary smaller as they put also smaller than those born specimens of smaller size eggs.
- raising a large number of copies (breed with 40 or 50 pairs) and go selecting among the myriad of birds obtained, those who are younger.
- select those individuals who are shorter and thinner tail. A canary with a short tail is smaller and also gives the feeling of being.
- cross with the serin or the cantor of Africa, and hybrid male cast them with smaller females. With this method, widely used by certain breeders if a decrease in size but at the cost of losing other characteristics is achieved racial as the shape of the head, neck and shoulder width. Personally it is a procedure that fully RECOMMEND since it goes against the purity of the breed.
Back and Chest . 25 Points.
Canary body must be narrow, cylindrical, that is rounded as possible.
Crosses with verdecillo and singer of Africa given as a result birds with the widest and stocky body, which is quite difficult to remove.
One of the most common flaws in this section is the prominent chest. It should be noted that a fully cylindrical body is unobtainable, the sternum is well developed in all birds and it is not possible to prevent being noticed more or less, but do not confuse a slight prominence of the sternum with a marked signage same.
The separate wings of the body at birth make the canary can not deliver the desired cylindrical shape when seen from the front, because the back and chest show the projections of the wings that break the fine appearance and tapered that should give printing the Spanish Canary Race.
Head and Neck. 10 Points.
The head should be small, as hazelnut, slightly flattened.
The neck must be fine and short, well marked, so that the transition from the head to the body is clear and perfectly visible.
The small, conical peak, consistent with the size of the head, considered defective too big peaks.
The main defects that occur in this section of the head and neck are:
- Shaped head lizard. This type of head is analogous to the Canary Curly South and Gilbert Ittalicus. The countersunk form to be submitted has disappeared at the top and is less marked at the bottom of the head.
- Flattened head at the top, front or almost without it.
- The rounded head with a high forehead is as default as a crushed head. Not be regarded as having rounded head that canary when ruffles the feathers of the head.
- The large head is usually almost always accompanied by a less marked or indicated neck. This type of defect usually occurs when two or snowy snowy subjects semiintenso mate.
The absence of neck often gives the impression smallest and most robust body when the bird is perfectly marked and pointed collar.
This issue, as well as the previous two, as shown in the pictures, have little marked and thick necks.
A peak too thick usually involves the disappearance of the forehead. If this does not occur the head has the appearance of being very heavy. A peak feature too thick is usually very difficult to eradicate because the corneas and bone parts are more difficult to reduce the muscle mass or long plumage.
Wings and Tail. 10 Points.
The wings should be long, ending in a point and touching without being crossed.
The tail should be of medium length, closed and slightly forked at its end.
Defects of the wings may be: short wings, or separate wings which cross at the ends. The short wings are not usually give almost never. Is much more common or cross separate wings. This defect is corrected by crossing the canary with one that has perfectly placed wings, never try to cross a bird with a defect (cross wings) with one having the opposite defect (separate wings) and that the crossing would get cross wings, wings spread and normal wings. Defect trunk spread wings at birth should be considered as a defect of the stem, as already explained in the section concerning said body part.
The tail should give the impression that is long but never to be. This is achieved if the queue is fine. View profile should be quite uniform can not stand any pen up or down; this defect usually occurs in queues too wide views from above and give the bird a lanky and disproportionate appearance.
Paws. 10 Points.
The legs should be short, with barely visible thighs and tarsus (which is usually called leg) up to 14 mm in length. To calculate this measure "by eye" have to fit almost 2 rings more. The fingers should be small and short, consistent with the size of the legs.
Very long or large a lanky legs give the canary look and do not contribute to the feeling that should give small Spanish Race.
Intense crossing with intense resulting in a shorter plumage, thereby thighs are tangible and legs look longer. This fact shows how there are no magic formulas posture canaries since crossing that can go well for one aspect may damage or interfere with another.
Plumage. 10 Points.
The plumage must be tight, short and well attached to the body to better give the feeling of the barrel. A long and rich plumage is typical of breeds should give the illusion of roundness (Gloster, Norwich, etc.).
Occasionally birds are small curls in the neck or chest (rather than curls I'd say it's a little long plumage), which occurs when crossing snow with snow and no heavy with snow. The intense crossing with intense, as we said above, produces a shortening of plumage and thus makes it is well attached to the body.
All open, along with small curls and not well attached to the body plumage must be considered defective.
These individuals have a very clear ruffled feathers and feather areas do not become bald. This type of canaries tend to come from crossing severe or intense X semintenso; crossing that reduces the size of the bird and refines the way but that spoils the plumage.
The red color is not authorized, even with artificial coloring, to maintain the purity of the breed. Personally I disagree with this approach because this breed, as already mentioned above, has been crossed and continues crossing the Serin and the Cantor of Africa and has not been systematically disqualified copies of suspected that might be the second or third generation hybrid and which are attacking the purity of the breed. Why then disqualify a canary has eaten some food for red factor or the breeder likes red?
Agility. 5 Points.
The bird should show agile and moving. This feature was in reaction, and subsequent differentiation, the quiet and lethargic for many breeds of English character position.
The canary is displayed nimble not mean it's scary. Many breeders caged canaries her the day before the contest, which scared the bird is shown before the judge and he can not fully appreciate its qualities, plus a frightened bird is usually spoil the plumage.
General Condition. 5 Points.
This section should include the good health and cleanliness of the animal and cage where it occurs. Any distortion or amputation disqualifies the bird and is noted in this section leaving unqualified.
Many breeders neglect this section and lose a few points that might well have made them champions. The experts present their canaries breeders in optimal conditions, so they do not lose any points in this section. The canaries should be clean, putting water to bathe 4 or 5 days before the contest and if the canary is filthy is washed by hand.
The Spanish Canary Race is a race that breeds quite well to their children. You must select those individuals who are good players (besides having other good racial characteristics) as this can have copies among those selected to be improving our campus.
This race, however small, you should not feel any disease or rickets. Should be healthy and vigorous specimens. We must discard the diseased specimens because the most important thing is to have a staff of healthy and disease resistant individuals.
Power does not require any special care or attention. They should be fed like any other race. Odd inexperienced breeder can think during breeding and separate little pasta and little protein and vitamins for birds grow less and are smaller must be given; nothing further of what to do: we must work on the selection of genetically fixed racial characteristics and not on the diet, as would some characters passengers and would have a stunted and sickly canaries.